The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

There are many mysteries concerning God. One thing that is not a mystery is that God has revealed his character to mankind. If you believe the big bang, then please explain in detail why there was an explosion? If universe was void and empty then where did the explosion come from? Michael Cleveland Nobody knows…yet, but there are potential answers in Quantum mechanics.

The Big Bang was an explosion of spacetime, a quantum fluctuation with positive feedback, not in spacetime.

As we move on down the line of the 10 most not-so-puzzling ancient artifacts, we come to the Ica are perhaps the most perplexing to me, since I don’t understand how anyone can look at these and think they are real.

The Potassium Argon Reaction Ar 40 is used for several reasons. First of all, Argon is inert. It does not chemically react with other elements at all. So Argon does not attach itself to the rock or any minerals in the rock. Secondly, Argon is usually a gas. These features are thought to allow any naturally occurring Argon from contaminating our measurements of the Argon 40 that is being produced from the radioactive decay of K When volcanic material flows over the land, the naturally occurring Argon gas is driven off by the excess heat.

When the rock is molten hot, it is more liquid in texture, allowing the Argon gas to escape. If all the gas is driven off, then there should be no Argon left in the rock. Once the rock cools and hardens, it is considered to be a closed system, because any new Ar 40 that is produced by the breakdown of K40 is trapped inside the rock crystal and cannot get out. So the scientist assumes that he or she is able to measure only that Ar 40 which is produced from K 40 since the rock has cooled.

Recent trends:

Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: However, there is actually no empirical evidence to back the claim that varves form as annual deposits over extended periods of time. It appears then, that claiming a varve is an annual event is an assumption in itself; one steeped in uniformitarian thought, but not reality.

Geologists have known for quite some time that multiple laminae may form very rapidly.

Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.

Whereas contextual seriation is based on the presence or absence of a design style , frequency seriation relies on measuring the proportional abundance or frequency of a design style. Contextual seriation is often used for reconstructing the chronological sequence of graves as only the presence or absence of a design style or type is important. Frequency seriation is applied in case of large quantities of objects belonging to the same style.

An example are assemblages of pottery sherds each including roughly the same range of types though in different proportions. History[ edit ] Flinders Petrie excavated at Diospolis Parva in Egypt in the late nineteenth century. He found that the graves he was uncovering contained no evidence of their dates and their discrete nature meant that a sequence could not be constructed through their stratigraphy. Petrie listed the contents of each grave on a strip of cardboard and swapped the papers around until he arrived at a sequence he was satisfied with.

Whereas Petrie is considered the inventor of contextual seriation, Brainerd [5] and Robinson [6] were the first to address the problem of frequency seriation Shennan , p. It also assumes that design popularity will be broadly similar from site to site within the same culture. In addition, it is vital that the lifespans of the different design styles overlap.

Evidence suggests Neanderthals took to boats before modern humans

These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition. Stromatolites Lower Proterozoic stromatolites from Bolivia , South America Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria.

While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae. One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia. The earliest stromatolite of confirmed microbial origin dates to 2. The most widely supported explanation is that stromatolite builders fell victims to grazing creatures the Cambrian substrate revolution , implying that sufficiently complex organisms were common over 1 billion years ago.

Emperors of the Sangoku,, the “Three Kingdoms,” of India, China, & Japan. India and China are the sources of the greatest civilizations in Eastern and Southern Asia. Their rulers saw themselves as universal monarchs, thereby matching the pretensions of the Roman Emperors in the West. The only drawbacks to their historical priority were that India suffered a setback, when the Indus Valley.

Larger settlements like Jericho arose along salt and flint trade routes. Northern Eurasia was resettled as the glaciers of the last glacial maximum retreated. World population was at a few million people, likely below 5 million. Researchers probing the ocean bottom have found story-high towers of stone deep in the ocean near a section of volcanic fault ridges that extend for 6, miles along the Atlantic Ocean floor.

There were indications of settlement after 9, B. This settlement grew to city status by 7, B. Manfred Heun of the Agricultural University of Norway, along with Norwegian, German, and Italian colleagues, examined the DNA of 68 lines of cultivated einkorn Triticum monococcum monococcum , lines of wild einkorn T. Wheat wasn’t far behind. In the New World, corn was being cultivated 9, years ago. July 22, One of the leading contenders is Jericho. Pluto [ years], Neptune [ years], Uranus [84 years], Saturn [28 years] and Jupiter [12 years].

World population was approximately 5 million.

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The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. With a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks.

Researchers find differences between ethnic groups living as farmers and those engaged in traditional hunter-gatherer activities. Scientists have long thought that the rate with which mutations occur in the genome does not depend on cultural factors.

These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition. Stromatolites Lower Proterozoic Stromatolites from Bolivia , South America Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria.

While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae. One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia. The earliest stromatolite of confirmed microbial origin dates to 2. The most widely supported explanation is that stromatolite builders fell victims to grazing creatures the Cambrian substrate revolution , implying that sufficiently complex organisms were common over 1 billion years ago.

Factors such as the chemistry of the environment may have been responsible for changes. Cyanobacteria as well as extremophile Gammaproteobacteria are thought to be largely responsible for increasing the amount of oxygen in the primeval earth’s atmosphere through their continuing photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria use water , carbon dioxide and sunlight to create their food. A layer of mucus often forms over mats of cyanobacterial cells.

In modern microbial mats, debris from the surrounding habitat can become trapped within the mucus, which can be cemented by the calcium carbonate to grow thin laminations of limestone. These laminations can accrete over time, resulting in the banded pattern common to stromatolites.

Emperors of India

The Grooved Spheres 2. Giant Stone Balls of Costa Rica Workmen hacking and burning their way through the dense jungle of Costa Rica to clear an area for banana plantations in the s stumbled upon some incredible objects: They varied in size from as small as a tennis ball to an astonishing 8 feet in diameter and weighing 16 tons! Although the great stone balls are clearly man-made, it is unknown who made them, for what purpose and, most puzzling, how they achieved such spherical precision.

Geochronology – Nonradiometric dating: In addition to radioactive decay, many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a.

How does a global flood explain angular unconformities? These are where one set of layers of sediments have been extensively modified e. They thus seem to require at least two periods of deposition more, where there is more than one unconformity with long periods of time in between to account for the deformation, erosion, and weathering observed. How were mountains and valleys formed? Many very tall mountains are composed of sedimentary rocks. The summit of Everest is composed of deep-marine limestone, with fossils of ocean-bottom dwelling crinoids [ Gansser, ].

If these were formed during the Flood, how did they reach their present height, and when were the valleys between them eroded away? Keep in mind that many valleys were clearly carved by glacial erosion, which is a slow process. When did granite batholiths form? Some of these are intruded into older sediments and have younger sediments on their eroded top surfaces.

It takes a long time for magma to cool into granite, nor does granite erode very quickly. One formation in New Jersey is six kilometers thick. If we grant days for this to settle, and ignore possible compaction since the Flood, we still have 15 meters of sediment settling per day.

Top 10 unexplained ancient artifacts – Fact or Fiction?

The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry.

Chronology: 15 Billion B.C. – 4 Million B.C. 11, B.C. – 9, B.C. 9, B.C. – 3, B.C. 3, B.C. – 1 A.D. Historical Summary: B.C – 1 A.D. Historical.

Fossil bones bear on speech capacity; archaeology bears on language. Abstract The fossil indications for speech, inferred from skull endocasts and from the anatomy of the vocal tract, the vertebral column, and the bony ear, suggest that there was a grade shift from the australopiths Australopithecus and Paranthropus , who lived mainly before two Ma million years ago , to species of Homo, who lived mainly afterwards.

The australopiths were probably no more capable of speech than living chimpanzees are, but bones suggest that all fossil species of Homo anticipated living humans in their speech ability. The oldest well-documented stone tools, assigned to the Oldowan Tradition between 2. Verbal instruction, albeit at a rudimentary level, was probably required to transmit this understanding between individuals and from generation to generation.

More complex, though still primitive forms of language were likely linked to post-Oldowan technological advances, including the appearance of the Acheulean Tradition, defined by hand axes and other shaped stone tools 1. The historical kind, marked by indisputable art and personal ornaments, appeared only 50—40 ka, which suggests this was also when full-fledged language appeared. The abrupt appearance of language and other fully modern cognitive traits 50—40 ka surely occurred in Africa, and enhanced cognition is likely to explain the nearly simultaneous expansion of fully modern Africans to Eurasia, where they replaced or swamped the Neanderthals and other non-modern humans.

Ancient DNA could be used to test the idea that fully featured language appeared about 50 ka, if it becomes possible to determine whether the Neanderthals and other non-modern humans lacked some genes that underpin language and other cognitive functions in all living people. Previous article in issue.

Relative Dating of Rock Layers

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